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CPU - Processors

The CPU (processor) is the proverbial brain of your PC. Choosing the right CPU enables you to speed up demanding applications and programs, use the full potential of your graphics card, and even reduce power consumption. Keep in mind that the processor socket must match the socket on your motherboard.

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CPU Usage

UseOfficeMultimediaGames and 3D graphicsWorkstations and servers
IntelCeleron, PentiumCore i3Core i5, Core i7Core i9, Xeon
AMDSempron, A-SeriesA-Series, Athlon X4, Ryzen 3Ryzen 5, Ryzen 7Ryzen 7, Ryzen Threadripper

CPU Manufacturers

Today, the CPU market is divided by two major players, Intel and AMD. Both are now very competitive and are trying to produce a processor with the best price/performance ratio. Both brands have a portfolio of CPU optimised for a full range of uses.

We have prepared a table for you to help familiarise you with the processor model series of both manufacturers.

Intel processor

Series DesignationFeatures
Intel CeleronThe lowest performance and price category of Intel CPU | Dual Core Processor | Frequencies less than 3 GHz | Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | No HyperThreading | No Turbo Boost
Intel PentiumLower range | Two cores | Frequencies around 3,5 GHz | Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | No HyperThreading and Turbo Boost technologies

Intel Core i3

Lower middle range | Two physical cores | Frequencies around 4 GHz | Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | HyperThreading | Without Turbo Boost | An open multiplier for models marked with the letter K
Intel Core i5Intel middle range | Up to 6 physical cores | Frequencies around 4 GHz | Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | Without HyperThreading | Turbo Boost | An open multiplier for models marked with a letter K
Intel Core i7Higher range of Intel CPU | Up to 6 physical cores | Frequencies around 4 GHz | Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | HyperThreading (12 threads) | Turbo Boost | An open multiplier for models marked with a letter K
Intel Core i9

HEDT Intel processors | Up to 18 cores | Frequencies around 4 GHz | No Integrated Graphics Core | 14nm manufacturing process | HyperThreading (up to 36 threads) | Turbo Boost | Open multiplier

Intel XeonIntel Server CPU | Specifications vary considerably between models | HyperThreading and Turbo boost are standard

AMD processor

Series designationFeatures
AMD SempronThe cheapest models from AMD | Dual and Quad-core versions | Integrated Graphics Core | Low frequencies | 28nm manufacturing process
AMD Athlon X4Quad-Core CPU | No integrated graphics | Frequencies up to 4 GHz | 28nm manufacturing process | Turbo Core

AMD FX

Older AMD Processor | 4, 6 or 8 cores | No integrated graphics chip | Frequencies exceeding 4 GHz | Significantly obsolete 32nm manufacturing process | Turbo Core
AMD Ryzen 3Lower range new generation AMD processor | Quad-core models | No integrated graphics chip | Frequencies higher than 3 GHz | 14nm manufacturing process Tubo Core | Open multiplier for all models
AMD Ryzen 5Middle range AMD processor | Quad-core and six-core models | No integrated graphics chip | Basic frequencies in the range of 3 - 4 GHz | 14nm manufacturing process | Turbo Core | SMT (8 and 12 threads) | Open multiplier
AMD Ryzen 7High  range Ryzen CPU | 8 cores | Basic frequencies of 3 - 4 GHz | 14nm manufacturing process | Turbo Core | SMT (16 threads) | Turbo Core | Open multiplier
AMD ThreadripperHEDT AMD CPU | 8 to 16 cores | Basic frequencies between 3 and 4 GHz | 14nm manufacturing process | Turbo Core | SMT (up to 32 threads) Open multiplier

Most Important CPU Parameters

  • Socket -It is where you install the CPU. The processor and motherboard must have the same type of socket.
  • Number of cores -a CPU with more cores can process more tasks (threads) simultaneously, which speeds up individual programs and the whole system.
  • Frequency - Frequency helps define the processor's basic speed without external interference. The main unit is Hertz, and for a processor, it is usually expressed in gigahertz or billions of Hertzs.
  • Max. Frequency - The maximum frequency is the value the CPU can achieve after automatic overclocking.
  • Automatic overclocking - dynamic overclocking that enables the computer processor to meet the requirements of applications that cannot use the full number of cores. Intel calls this technology Turbo Boost. AMD calles it a Turbo Core. Not all processors have it.
  • Integrated GPU - Integrated GPU means that the basic graphics chip is integrated into the processor case. This has one great advantage - you do not have to buy a dedicated graphics card for ordinary office work, but you can not expect high performance with demanding graphics applications.
  • Hyper-Threading - HyperThreading is an Intel technology that enables one processor core to handle two software operations at the same time. To a certain extent, the CPU is able to operate as if it had double the number of cores.
  • Multi-Threading - The full name is simultaneous multi-threading (SMT),  and it is basically the same technology as Hyper-Threading but for an AMD processor.
  • An open multiplier - an open multiplier means that the CPU is easily overwritten by just incrementing the value of this parameter.
i If you increase the voltage during overclocking, you increase the TDP.

Other CPU Parameters

  • Stock Cooler - a heat sink is also often supplied with the CPU. We call it "stock", and although it is designed to remove heat, virtually any third-party heat sink will help lower temperatures more and provide a longer processor life.
  • Virtualisation - virtualisation allows virtual machines to run on a computer. These are computers on a computer that has access to hardware without affecting the host operating system. Virtualisation is now commonplace for the vast majority of processors.
  • For Servers - CPU specialising in uninterrupted server traffic. For example, they have a large number of kernels or a majority of the kernels are graphics kernels.
  • TDP - Thermal Design Power, which means the amount of heat produced by the CPU. The main unit is a Watt. TDP does not directly report the power consumption of the processor, but it is directly proportional to it.
  • Reduced Consumption - CPU with this parameter are optimised for low power consumption. Their common feature means a reduced frequency compared to standard models.
  • The L2 cache is the processor cache. It is among the memory and processor computing units to prevent the processor from slowing down the speed of memory. Each kernel has a separate L2 cache.
  • L3 cache - The L3 cache has only one processor and shares all kernels. Generally, the larger the cache, the better. However, this is not a benchmark.
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CPU - Processors

The term CPU processor (central processing unit) refers to a complex electronic integrated circuit, which is the brain of any computers. Settles into the socket on the motherboard and its selection should pay close attention. The processor is definitely not the part of the computer that should save. Now the processor is actually one of the main factors that affect the overall performance of your computer.

Slowly but surely recede classic single-core processors that are pushed modern multi-core bits. Currently used dual-core, three, quad-core and even six-core processors. Multi-core processor has compared to single core one big advantage. That is the ability to process larger amounts of information at once. So you can have several programs running at the same time, without a significant decline in computer performance. Manufacturers are also currently focus on that processors have as little energy demands. Therefore, processors are now manufactured advanced 45nm process, thus producing less heat dissipation performance and are more energy-efficient. Modern processors work with 64-bit and 32-bit applications.

Primarily processors are divided according to the manufacturer's (AMD and Intel). Both producers and processors developed for different socket (socket). It is therefore necessary to ensure that the selected processor is fully compatible with the motherboard, possibly the one that we are also planning to buy. The important parameters in the selection of the processor are working frequency, system bus frequency, cache size, support for modern instruction and ultimately consumption.

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